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  • The Official MIDI Specifications

    The Official MIDI Specifications

Control Change Messages (Data Bytes)

Table 3 - Control Change Messages and RPNs

The following table lists all currently defined Control Change messages and Channel Mode messages, in control number order (adapted from "MIDI by the Numbers" by D. Valenti-Electronic Musician 2/88, and updated by the MIDI Manufacturers Association.) This table is intended as an overview of MIDI, and is by no means complete.

WARNING! Details about implementing these messages can dramatically impact compatibility with other products. We strongly recommend consulting the official MMA Detailed MIDI Specification for additional information.

Registered Parameter Numbers (RPNs) are an extension to the Control Change message for setting additional parameters. Appended at the bottom is a table of all currently defined RPNs.

WARNING! Details about implementing these messages can dramatically impact compatibility with other products. We strongly recommend consulting the official MMA Detailed MIDI Specification for additional information.


Table 3: Control Changes and Mode Changes
(Status Bytes 176-191)
Control Number
(2nd Byte Value)
Control Function 3rd Byte Value
Decimal Binary Hex Value Used As
0 00000000 00 Bank Select 0-127 MSB
1 00000001 01 Modulation Wheel or Lever 0-127 MSB
2 00000010 02 Breath Controller 0-127 MSB
3 00000011 03 Undefined 0-127 MSB
4 00000100 04 Foot Controller 0-127 MSB
5 00000101 05 Portamento Time 0-127 MSB
6 00000110 06 Data Entry MSB 0-127 MSB
7 00000111 07 Channel Volume (formerly Main Volume) 0-127 MSB
8 00001000 08 Balance 0-127 MSB
9 00001001 09 Undefined 0-127 MSB
10 00001010 0A Pan 0-127 MSB
11 00001011 0B Expression Controller 0-127 MSB
12 00001100 0C Effect Control 1 0-127 MSB
13 00001101 0D Effect Control 2 0-127 MSB
14 00001110 0E Undefined 0-127 MSB
15 00001111 0F Undefined 0-127 MSB
16 00010000 10 General Purpose Controller 1 0-127 MSB
17 00010001 11 General Purpose Controller 2 0-127 MSB
18 00010010 12 General Purpose Controller 3 0-127 MSB
19 00010011 13 General Purpose Controller 4 0-127 MSB
20 00010100 14 Undefined 0-127 MSB
21 00010101 15 Undefined 0-127 MSB
22 00010110 16 Undefined 0-127 MSB
23 00010111 17 Undefined 0-127 MSB
24 00011000 18 Undefined 0-127 MSB
25 00011001 19 Undefined 0-127 MSB
26 00011010 1A Undefined 0-127 MSB
27 00011011 1B Undefined 0-127 MSB
28 00011100 1C Undefined 0-127 MSB
29 00011101 1D Undefined 0-127 MSB
30 00011110 1E Undefined 0-127 MSB
31 00011111 1F Undefined 0-127 MSB
32 00100000 20 LSB for Control 0 (Bank Select) 0-127 LSB
33 00100001 21 LSB for Control 1 (Modulation Wheel or Lever) 0-127 LSB
34 00100010 22 LSB for Control 2 (Breath Controller) 0-127 LSB
35 00100011 23 LSB for Control 3 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
36 00100100 24 LSB for Control 4 (Foot Controller) 0-127 LSB
37 00100101 25 LSB for Control 5 (Portamento Time) 0-127 LSB
38 00100110 26 LSB for Control 6 (Data Entry) 0-127 LSB
39 00100111 27 LSB for Control 7 (Channel Volume, formerly Main Volume) 0-127 LSB
40 00101000 28 LSB for Control 8 (Balance) 0-127 LSB
41 00101001 29 LSB for Control 9 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
42 00101010 2A LSB for Control 10 (Pan) 0-127 LSB
43 00101011 2B LSB for Control 11 (Expression Controller) 0-127 LSB
44 00101100 2C LSB for Control 12 (Effect control 1) 0-127 LSB
45 00101101 2D LSB for Control 13 (Effect control 2) 0-127 LSB
46 00101110 2E LSB for Control 14 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
47 00101111 2F LSB for Control 15 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
48 00110000 30 LSB for Control 16 (General Purpose Controller 1) 0-127 LSB
49 00110001 31 LSB for Control 17 (General Purpose Controller 2) 0-127 LSB
50 00110010 32 LSB for Control 18 (General Purpose Controller 3) 0-127 LSB
51 00110011 33 LSB for Control 19 (General Purpose Controller 4) 0-127 LSB
52 00110100 34 LSB for Control 20 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
53 00110101 35 LSB for Control 21 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
54 00110110 36 LSB for Control 22 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
55 00110111 37 LSB for Control 23 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
56 00111000 38 LSB for Control 24 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
57 00111001 39 LSB for Control 25 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
58 00111010 3A LSB for Control 26 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
59 00111011 3B LSB for Control 27 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
60 00111100 3C LSB for Control 28 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
61 00111101 3D LSB for Control 29 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
62 00111110 3E LSB for Control 30 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
63 00111111 3F LSB for Control 31 (Undefined) 0-127 LSB
64 01000000 40 Damper Pedal on/off (Sustain) ≤63 off, ≥64 on ---
65 01000001 41 Portamento On/Off ≤63 off, ≥64 on ---
66 01000010 42 Sostenuto On/Off ≤63 off, ≥64 on ---
67 01000011 43 Soft Pedal On/Off ≤63 off, ≥64 on ---
68 01000100 44 Legato Footswitch ≤63 Normal, ≥64 Legato ---
69 01000101 45 Hold 2 ≤63 off, ≥64 on ---
70 01000110 46 Sound Controller 1 (default: Sound Variation) 0-127 LSB
71 01000111 47 Sound Controller 2 (default: Timbre/Harmonic Intens.) 0-127 LSB
72 01001000 48 Sound Controller 3 (default: Release Time) 0-127 LSB
73 01001001 49 Sound Controller 4 (default: Attack Time) 0-127 LSB
74 01001010 4A Sound Controller 5 (default: Brightness) 0-127 LSB
75 01001011 4B Sound Controller 6 (default: Decay Time - see MMA RP-021) 0-127 LSB
76 01001100 4C Sound Controller 7 (default: Vibrato Rate - see MMA RP-021) 0-127 LSB
77 01001101 4D Sound Controller 8 (default: Vibrato Depth - see MMA RP-021) 0-127 LSB
78 01001110 4E Sound Controller 9 (default: Vibrato Delay - see MMA RP-021) 0-127 LSB
79 01001111 4F Sound Controller 10 (default undefined - see MMA RP-021) 0-127 LSB
80 01010000 50 General Purpose Controller 5 0-127 LSB
81 01010001 51 General Purpose Controller 6 0-127 LSB
82 01010010 52 General Purpose Controller 7 0-127 LSB
83 01010011 53 General Purpose Controller 8 0-127 LSB
84 01010100 54 Portamento Control 0-127 LSB
85 01010101 55 Undefined --- ---
86 01010110 56 Undefined --- ---
87 01010111 57 Undefined --- ---
88 01011000 58 High Resolution Velocity Prefix 0-127 LSB
89 01011001 59 Undefined --- ---
90 01011010 5A Undefined --- ---
91 01011011 5B Effects 1 Depth
(default: Reverb Send Level - see MMA RP-023)
(formerly External Effects Depth)
0-127 ---
92 01011100 5C Effects 2 Depth (formerly Tremolo Depth) 0-127 ---
93 01011101 5D Effects 3 Depth
(default: Chorus Send Level - see MMA RP-023)
(formerly Chorus Depth)
0-127 ---
94 01011110 5E Effects 4 Depth (formerly Celeste [Detune] Depth) 0-127 ---
95 01011111 5F Effects 5 Depth (formerly Phaser Depth) 0-127 ---
96 01100000 60 Data Increment (Data Entry +1) (see MMA RP-018) N/A ---
97 01100001 61 Data Decrement (Data Entry -1) (see MMA RP-018) N/A ---
98 01100010 62 Non-Registered Parameter Number (NRPN) - LSB 0-127 LSB
99 01100011 63 Non-Registered Parameter Number (NRPN) - MSB 0-127 MSB
100 01100100 64 Registered Parameter Number (RPN) - LSB* 0-127 LSB
101 01100101 65 Registered Parameter Number (RPN) - MSB* 0-127 MSB
102 01100110 66 Undefined --- ---
103 01100111 67 Undefined --- ---
104 01101000 68 Undefined --- ---
105 01101001 69 Undefined --- ---
106 01101010 6A Undefined --- ---
107 01101011 6B Undefined --- ---
108 01101100 6C Undefined --- ---
109 01101101 6D Undefined --- ---
110 01101110 6E Undefined --- ---
111 01101111 6F Undefined --- ---
112 01110000 70 Undefined --- ---
113 01110001 71 Undefined --- ---
114 01110010 72 Undefined --- ---
115 01110011 73 Undefined --- ---
116 01110100 74 Undefined --- ---
117 01110101 75 Undefined --- ---
118 01110110 76 Undefined --- ---
119 01110111 77 Undefined --- ---
Note: Controller numbers 120-127 are reserved for Channel Mode Messages, which rather than controlling sound parameters, affect the channel's operating mode. (See also Table 1.)
120 01111000 78 [Channel Mode Message] All Sound Off 0 ---
121 01111001 79 [Channel Mode Message] Reset All Controllers
(See MMA RP-015)
0 ---
122 01111010 7A [Channel Mode Message] Local Control On/Off 0 off, 127 on ---
123 01111011 7B [Channel Mode Message] All Notes Off 0 ---
124 01111100 7C [Channel Mode Message] Omni Mode Off (+ all notes off) 0 ---
125 01111101 7D [Channel Mode Message] Omni Mode On (+ all notes off) 0 ---
126 01111110 7E [Channel Mode Message] Mono Mode On (+ poly off, + all notes off)

Note: This equals the number of channels, or zero if the number of channels equals the number of voices in the receiver.

---
127 01111111 7F [Channel Mode Message] Poly Mode On (+ mono off, +all notes off) 0 ---


Table 3a: Registered Parameter Numbers

To set or change the value of a Registered Parameter:

1. Send two Control Change messages using Control Numbers 101 (65H) and 100 (64H) to select the desired Registered Parameter Number, as per the following table.

2. To set the selected Registered Parameter to a specific value, send a Control Change messages to the Data Entry MSB controller (Control Number 6). If the selected Registered Parameter requires the LSB to be set, send another Control Change message to the Data Entry LSB controller (Control Number 38).

3. To make a relative adjustment to the selected Registered Parameter's current value, use the Data Increment or Data Decrement controllers (Control Numbers 96 and 97).

Parameter Number Parameter Function Data Entry Value
MSB: Control 101 (65H) Value LSB: Control 100 (64H) Value
00H 00H Pitch Bend Sensitivity MSB = +/- semitones
LSB =+/--cents
01H Channel Fine Tuning
(formerly Fine Tuning - see MMA RP-022)
Resolution 100/8192 cents
00H 00H = -100 cents
40H 00H = A440
7FH 7FH = +100 cents
02H Channel Coarse Tuning
(formerly Coarse Tuning - see MMA RP-022)
Only MSB used
Resolution 100 cents
00H = -6400 cents
40H = A440
7FH = +6300 cents
03H Tuning Program Change Tuning Program Number
04H Tuning Bank Select Tuning Bank Number
05H  Modulation Depth Range
(see MMA General MIDI Level 2 Specification)
For GM2, defined in GM2 Specification.
For other systems, defined by manufacturer
 ...  ...  All RESERVED for future MMA Definition  ...
3DH (61) Three Dimensional Sound Controllers
00H AZIMUTH ANGLE  See RP-049
01H ELEVATION ANGLE  See RP-049
02H GAIN  See RP-049
03H DISTANCE RATIO  See RP-049
04H MAXIMUM DISTANCE  See RP-049
05H GAIN AT MAXIMUM DISTANCE  See RP-049
06H REFERENCE DISTANCE RATIO  See RP-049
07H PAN SPREAD ANGLE  See RP-049
08H ROLL ANGLE  See RP-049
 ...  ...  All RESERVED for future MMA Definition  ...
7FH 7FH Null Function Number for RPN/NRPN Setting RPN to 7FH,7FH will disable the data entry, data increment, and data decrement controllers until a new RPN or NRPN is selected.